This dissertation, completed and defended in Spring 2016, investigates urbanization as a mode of generalized geographical organization in which agglomerations, although covering no more than 5% of the land surface, are connected to the reconfiguration of most of the 70% of the planetary terrain currently used.
The project critically revisits and deconstructs the concept of the hinterland aiming to transcend its associated dichotomies and limitations. It introduces the meta-categories of agglomeration landscapes and operational landscapes as landscapes of possible externalities associated with particular operations: Agglomeration landscapes are characterized by the presence of ‘urban’ and ‘clustering’ externalities, while operational landscapes are mostly connected with ‘locational’ externalities. The project investigates how these externalities emerge out of, or are prohibited by, particular compositions of asymmetrically distributed, but largely continuous, elements of geographical organization (elements of the natural environment, elements of infrastructural equipment, demographic factors, institutional and regulatory frameworks). According to this framework, agglomeration landscapes are presented as the main locations for operations of the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy, while operational landscapes for operations of the primary sector of the economy. In this way, it is argued that while ‘urban’ economies have been only associated with the former, the economies of urbanization should be also stretched to include the latter.
In addition to introducing these novel categories, the project also explores how they could be cartographically defined through the combinatory charting of the various geographical elements that constitute them. As a result, it blends a theoretical apparatus, building upon theories of the social and ecological production of space under capitalism; with a cartographic and geostatistical apparatus, building upon a critical engagement with selected global geospatial datasets. Finally, as a means of exploring the capacities of these novel concepts, the project attempts a historical overview of the development of urbanization as geographical organization over the past two centuries: As urbanization generalizes a condition of biogeographical interdependency, operational landscapes expand and specialize constructing a globalized shared assembly. Instrumentalized through global commodity chains, this planetary operational totality signals the shift from the universe of fragmented hinterlands, to the totality of the Hinterglobe: an alternative interpretation of the complete urbanization of the world.
Outcome, Spring 2016: doctoral dissertation, Harvard GSD